What happened overnight? Police blotter report for Wednesday, Nov. 18

Last Update: 3:30 p.m. Wednesday, November 18, 2020

     


Need a local attorney?   NNYLawyers.com        JeffersonScanner.com     

Watertown Police Department:

Zachery S. Ward, 21, of 1020 Washington St., Watertown, was charged by Watertown police at 10:27 p.m. Tuesday, Nov. 17, at 1020 Washington St. with criminal obstruction of breathing or blood circulation, petit larceny and second-degree harassment. Mr. Ward is accused applying pressure to the neck of Chelsea Dugan-Smith, 26, which caused her to have difficulty breathing and allegedly struck her in the face with a closed fist at about 9:30 p.m. Nov. 17 at 1020 Washington St., according to court documents. He is also accused of stealing an urn containing the ashes of her father, police said. He was additionally charged with second-degree menacing and fourth-degree criminal mischief. Mr. Ward allegedly ran at Thomas Rose, 31, with a chainsaw at about 9:37 p.m. Tuesday at 1020 Washington St., police said. Mr. Ward was being held pending a video arraignment in City Court.

John A. Ellsworth, 25, of 823 Water St., Watertown, was charged by Watertown police at 9:38 p.m. Tuesday, Nov. 17, at 119 California Ave. with first-degree criminal contempt, a felony. Mr. Ellsworth is accused of violating the terms of a Jefferson County Court stay-away order of protection when he argued with the protected party, a 27-year-old woman, through text messages at about 2:29 p.m. Tuesday, according to court documents. He was being held pending a video arraignment in City Court.

Billy Joe Barnett-Martin, 23, of 845 Starbuck Ave., Apt. 1504, Watertown, was charged by Watertown police at 6:35 p.m. Tuesday, Nov. 17, at 120 S. Meadow St. with second-degree harassment. He is accused of throwing beer on Rebecca Reff, 48, at about 9:17 p.m. Nov. 3 at 623 Olive St., according to court documents. He is summoned to appear Nov. 20 in City Court.

Carl E. Orton Jr., 35, of 814 Franklin St., Watertown, was charged by Watertown police at 11:47 a.m. Tuesday, Nov. 17, at 814 Franklin St. with second-degree criminal trespass. Mr. Orton is accused of entering 816 Franklin St. with the permission of the 33-year-old resident and left her apartment after discovering her on a back stairway at about 9:15 a.m. Tuesday, according to court documents. He is summoned to appear Dec. 2 in City Court.

David L. Bingham Roberts, 22, of 10138 4th Armored Div. Dr., Fort Drum, was charged by Watertown police at 6:47 p.m. Tuesday, Nov. 17, in the 1100 block of Arsenal Street with operating a vehicle on a suspended registration. He is summoned to appear Dec. 3 in City Court.

 

   


Black River / Evans Mills Village Police Department:


Oswego County Sheriff’s Office:
Official: Oswego County Sheriff’s Office


Lewis County Sheriff’s Office:
Official: Lewis County Sheriff’s Office


Jefferson County Sheriff’s Office:
Official: Jefferson County Sheriff’s Office  


New York State Police:

Brent Collette, 33, Evans Mills, was charged by state police at 9:28 p.m. Monday, Nov. 16, with fourth-degree criminal mischief in connection with an incident reported 8:04 p.m. Nov. 16 in the town of LeRay. He is summoned to appear in LeRay Town Court.

 


On Nov. 16, 2020, at approximately 5 p.m., State Police observed a vehicle traveling west on State Route 11 in Moira at 65 mph in the 35 mph zone. The trooper attempted to initiate a traffic stop and the operator failed to pull over. A pursuit was initiated and continued west on State Route 11. The operator turned onto County Route 54 in St. Lawrence County, and then onto Ferris Road where the pursuit eventually ended in the driveway of 923 Ferris Road in the town of Lawrence. The operator was identified as 55-year-old Leisa S. Ward of Lawrence. She refused testing to determine her blood alcohol content. Ward was also found to only possess a non-driver ID only with a revoked status for a prior DWI conviction in 2014. She was charged with Felony DWI, and Unlawfully Fleeing an Officer third-degree. Ward was arraigned virtually and released to reappear in the Town of Moira Court and the Town of Lawrence Court at later dates.

 


UPDATE: State Police recently arrested several individuals following an investigation into a burglary that occurred on Aug. 28, 2020, at a residence on West Main Street in the town of Norfolk. The residence was struck twice on the same date.  The first incident occurred at approximately 5:30 p.m., when subjects forced entry into the home and were armed with weapons. Then later, at approximately 11 p.m., individuals forced entry into the home again, armed with weapons, and assaulted a resident inside. The victim was taken to Canton Potsdam Hospital for numerous lacerations to the face and head, two broken ribs and a collapsed lung.

As a result of the investigation, the following suspects have been arrested and all were charged with one count each of first-degree burglary and fourth-degree conspiracy:

  1. Austin M. Mitchell, 19, Massena; arraigned virtually by Town of Oswegatchie Court, and remanded to St. Lawrence County Correctional Facility in lieu of $25,000 cash bail or $50,000 secured bond.

  2. Schuyler G. Mitchell, 22, Massena; arraigned virtually by Town of Oswegatchie Court, and remanded to St. Lawrence County Correctional Facility in lieu of $25,000 cash bail or $50,000 secured bond.

  3. Sinclair D. Babb Jr., 21, Massena; arraigned virtually by Town of Canton Court, and remanded to St. Lawrence County Correctional Facility in lieu of $5,000 cash bail or $10,000 secured bond.

  4. Nelson J. Feliz, 22, Massena; arraigned virtually by Clifton Town Court, and released to the supervision of Probation.

  5. Richard L. Schwartfigure Jr., 26, Canton; arraigned virtually by Town of Morristown Court, and remanded to St. Lawrence County Correctional Facility without bail.

  6. 18-year-old female of Massena; arraigned virtually by Town of Morristown Court, and remanded to St. Lawrence County Correctional Facility in lieu of $15,000 cash bail or $30,000 secured bond.

  7. Catherine N. Martin, 29, Massena; arraigned virtually by Town of Oswegatchie Court, and released to the supervision of Probation.

Austin M. Mitchell and Schuyler G. Mitchell were charged with an additional count each of first-degree burglary and fourth-degree conspiracy, due to their involvement in both incidents.

State Police were assisted by the Norfolk Police Department.


Official: New York State Police


Jefferson County Fire and Emergency Management


Watertown Police Department Activity 7AM Tuesday to 7AM Wednesday, Nov. 18

08:29:47  11/17/20 V&T Stop 740 STATE ST; RYANS JET GAS

08:32:15  11/17/20 Domestic Dist 400 BLOCK OF CLAY ST
08:51:20  11/17/20 V&T Stop ARMED FORCES BUILDING S MASSEY
09:32:48  11/17/20 Animal 410 ARSENAL ST
09:47:17  11/17/20 V&T Stop BRADLEY ST & CITY LIMITS
09:46:35  11/17/20 Trespsng/Unwant 816 FRANKLIN ST; UPPER
09:56:46  11/17/20 V&T Stop BRADLEY ST
08:48:21  11/17/20 Traffic Incidnt 86 PUBLIC SQ; PARKING LOT
10:55:28  11/17/20 Traffic W/Injur STONE ST & S MEADOW ST
08:50:40  11/17/20 Domestic Dist 751 WATERMAN DR; PUBLIC SAFETY BUILDING
11:58:36  11/17/20 Disturb/Nuisnce 1708 OHIO ST
12:19:42  11/17/20 V&T Stop GAFFNEY DR & WESTERN BLVD
12:47:13  11/17/20 Traffic Viol/Hz W MAIN ST & BRADLEY ST
09:56:28  11/17/20 Harass/Stal/Thr 1025 WASHINGTON ST
12:42:35  11/17/20 Police Callback 1429 GILL ST; APT 432A
13:26:43  11/17/20 Domestic Dist 751 WATERMAN DR; PUBLIC SAFETY BUILDING
13:46:27  11/17/20 Disturb/Nuisnce 207 WEALTHA AVE; 662A
14:03:29  11/17/20 Suspicious ROUNDHOUSE DR & RAIL DR
14:04:07  11/17/20 Mental Disorder 323 STERLING ST
14:41:47  11/17/20 Trespsng/Unwant 210 ARLINGTON ST
13:03:08  11/17/20 Animal 318 FLOWER AVE E
15:18:50  11/17/20 Suspicious FRANKLIN ST & ACADEMY ST
15:35:04  11/17/20 Police Callback 309 MULLIN ST; APT 2
15:37:19  11/17/20 Aban/Hangup 120 FACTORY ST NORTHERN CREDIT UNION
17:08:05  11/17/20 Disturb/Nuisnce 415 GOTHAM ST
17:21:44  11/17/20 V&T Stop 100 ARSENAL ST
18:04:57  11/17/20 Police Callback 308 HOLCOMB ST; FRONT APT
18:07:48  11/17/20 Traffic Incidnt 1165 ARSENAL ST; ALDI FOODS
18:44:38  11/17/20 Suspicious 356 N COLORADO AVE
18:47:52  11/17/20 Police Callback 17 MAYWOOD TER
18:48:30  11/17/20 Public Service 221 CLINTON ST; TLS
19:09:29  11/17/20 Assault 830 WASHINGTON ST; INPATIENT MENTAL HEALTH
19:05:03  11/17/20 Suspicious 310 TILDEN ST
20:10:34  11/17/20 Disturb/Nuisnce 1283 ARSENAL ST; TJ MAXX
20:20:01  11/17/20 Traffic Incidnt N INDIANA AVE & STATE ST
20:15:13  11/17/20 Police Callback 1815 OLMSTED DR; APT 201A
21:37:49  11/17/20 Disturb/Nuisnce 1020 WASHINGTON ST
22:07:49  11/17/20 Public Service 802 HOLCOMB ST
22:42:08  11/17/20 Public Service 309 MILL ST; APT 506
23:07:36  11/17/20 Alarms 1335 WASHINGTON ST; WATN HIGH SCHOOL
00:19:15  11/18/20 Animal OAK ST & WATER ST
02:45:47  11/18/20 Homeless Person 1003 COFFEEN ST; BYRNE DAIRY

 


City of Watertown Fire Department Activity 7AM Tuesday to 7AM Wednesday, Nov. 18

08:32:15  11/17/20 ASSAULT-EMS 400 BLOCK OF CLAY ST
09:53:48  11/17/20 SECOND ALARM 200 MULLIN ST; OCCUPATIONAL MEDICINE
10:36:54  11/17/20 STROKE 142 MECHANIC ST; APT 210

10:55:28  11/17/20 TRAFFIC W/INJUR STONE ST & S MEADOW ST
11:42:40  11/17/20 STROKE 106 HIGHLAND AVE
12:47:55  11/17/20 FIRE ALARM 417 WASHINGTON ST; CREDO
13:46:27  11/17/20 BREATHING PROBL 207 WEALTHA AVE; 662A
14:09:52  11/17/20 FALL 166 BISHOP ST
15:52:28  11/17/20 FALL 866 LERAY ST
16:49:52  11/17/20 CHEST PAIN 175 CITY CENTER DR; JB WISE
19:05:14  11/17/20 FALL 298 E MAIN ST
19:26:33  11/17/20 PREGNANCY/BIRTH 418 W MULLIN ST; FRONT
19:59:05  11/17/20 OUTDOOR FIRE 807 COOPER ST
20:05:40  11/17/20 FIRE ALARM 1704 STATE ST; CHILDRENS HOME
04:05:29  11/18/20 CHEST PAIN 138 W MAIN ST; APT 2

Official: watertowncityfire.com


Fort Drum Fire Dept. Activity

No activity.


Adams Fire Dept. Activity

No activity.


Adams Center Fire Dept. Activity

No activity.


Alexandria Bay Fire Dept. Activity

No activity.


Antwerp Fire Dept. Activity

No activity.


Belleville Fire Dept. Activity

No activity.


Black River Fire Dept. Activity

10:31:20  11/17/20 VEHICLE FIRE 28715 STATE ROUTE 3; STEWARTS


Calcium Fire Dept. Activity

17:27:12  11/17/20 CO DET/NO ILL 26216 HARRIER COURT, LERAY(T)


Cape Vincent Fire Dept. Activity

No activity.


Carthage Fire Dept. Activity

14:30:59  11/17/20 WIRES/TREE DOWN911 WEST ST, CARTHAGE(V)
22:13:17  11/17/20 SICK PERSON 323 S WASHINGTON ST; APT C15, CARTHAGE(V)


West Carthage Fire Dept. Activity

No activity.


Chaumont Fire Dept. Activity

No activity.


Clayton Fire Dept. Activity

No activity.


Deferiet Fire Dept. Activity

No activity.


Depauville Fire Dept. Activity

08:20:49  11/17/20 STROKE 31537 ROUTE 12; FORKEY AUTO SALES, CLAYTON(T)


Ellisburg Fire Dept. Activity

No activity.


Evans Mills Fire Dept. Activity

No activity.


Felts Mills Fire Dept. Activity

No activity.


Fishers Landing Fire Dept. Activity

No activity.


Glen Park Fire Dept. Activity

No activity.


Great Bend Fire Dept. Activity

No activity.


Henderson Fire Dept. Activity

No activity.


LaFargeville Fire Dept. Activity

07:22:58  11/17/20 FALL 38183 STATE ROUTE 180, ORLEANS(T)


Lorraine Fire Dept. Activity

17:35:52  11/17/20 PSYCHIATRIC 7860 LAWRENCE RD


Mannsville Fire Dept. Activity

No activity.


Natural Bridge Fire Dept. Activity

No activity.


Northpole Fire Dept. Activity

No activity.


Oxbow Fire Dept. Activity

No activity.


Pamelia Fire Dept. Activity

No activity.


Philadelphia Fire Dept. Activity

No activity.


Plessis Fire Dept. Activity

No activity.


Redwood Fire Dept. Activity

No activity.


Rodman Fire Dept. Activity

No activity.


Rutland Fire Dept. Activity

No activity.


Sackets Harbor Fire Dept. Activity

No activity.


Smithville Fire Dept. Activity

No activity.


Theresa Fire Dept. Activity

No activity.


Three Mile Bay Fire Dept. Activity

No activity.


Town of Brownville Fire Dept. Activity

15:55:14  11/17/20 HEART PROBLEM 200 W GROVE ST; APT B4, DEXTER(V)


Town of Watertown Fire Dept. Activity

No activity


Wellesley Island Fire Dept. Activity

No activity


Jefferson County Sheriff’s Office Activity

07:01:29  11/17/20 Traffic Incidnt STATE ROUTE 3 & BOLTON RD, ELLISBURG(T)
07:39:07  11/17/20 Fraud / Decept 753 WATERMAN DR; PUBLIC SAFETY BUILDING
08:17:45  11/17/20 Theft 25737 US ROUTE 11, LERAY(T)
09:25:09  11/17/20 Lost Plate 753 WATERMAN DR; PUBLIC SAFETY BUILDING
10:56:41  11/17/20 Assist-Law 24399 MAIN ST, RUTLAND(T)
11:10:29  11/17/20 Lost Plate 753 WATERMAN DR; PUBLIC SAFETY BUILDING
11:27:56  11/17/20 Traffic Viol/Hz STATE ROUTE 342 & HINDS RD, PAMELIA(T)
12:17:04  11/17/20 Assist-Law 753 WATERMAN DR; PUBLIC SAFETY BUILDING
12:53:53  11/17/20 Assist-Law 32735 CR 29; INDIAN RIVER MIDDLE SCHOOL
12:59:54  11/17/20 K9 Search 11868 ACADEMY ST; LYME CENTRAL SCHOOL
11:53:53  11/17/20 Police Callback 753 WATERMAN DR; PUBLIC SAFETY BUILDING
13:05:58  11/17/20 Property Surren 753 WATERMAN DR, WATERTOWN(C)
13:18:25  11/17/20 K9 Search 213 S BROAD ST; SACKETS HARBOR CENTRAL
13:20:21  11/17/20 K9 Search 213 S BROAD ST; SACKETS HARBOR CENTRAL
13:23:15  11/17/20 V&T Stop STATE ROUTE 411 & STATE ROUTE 37, THERESA(T)
13:29:08  11/17/20 Contraband 753 WATERMAN DR; INTAKE, WATERTOWN(C)
13:49:06  11/17/20 Disturb/Nuisnce 24180 COUNTY ROUTE 16; CREDO, PAMELIA(T)
14:55:01  11/17/20 Transport-Law 165 ARSENAL ST; JEFFERSON COUNTY FAMILY COURT
14:57:30  11/17/20 Traffic Viol/Hz 21265 ROUTE 232; NATIONAL GRID, WATERTOWN(T)
15:12:42  11/17/20 Burn Report 227 MERRICK ST, CLAYTON(V)
15:56:20  11/17/20 Assist-Law 753 WATERMAN DR, WATERTOWN(C)
16:50:29  11/17/20 Lost Plate 753 WATERMAN DR; PUBLIC SAFETY BUILDING
17:23:02  11/17/20 Traffic Incidnt 11 & STONY CREEK; JUST SOUTH OF TALCOTT FALLS
17:35:52  11/17/20 Suicidal Person 7860 LAWRENCE RD, LORRAINE(T)
18:15:50  11/17/20 Traffic Incidnt 98 BRIDGE ST; MCDONALDS, WEST CARTHAGE(V)
18:32:22  11/17/20 Public Service 23688 PERRIGO RD, RUTLAND(T)
18:54:58  11/17/20 Suspicious 28385 STATE ROUTE 37, PAMELIA(T)
21:57:48  11/17/20 Trespsng/Unwant 19325 US ROUTE 11; RELAX INN, WATERTOWN(T)
21:57:17  11/17/20 V&T Stop STATE ROUTE 12 & BALD ROCK RD, CLAYTON(T)
01:52:34  11/18/20 Alarms 19309 S SHORE RD, LYME(T)

 


New York State Police Activity 

18:05:01  11/17/20 V&T Stop I 81 & COUNTY ROUTE 16, PAMELIA(T)
18:16:58  11/17/20 V&T Stop I 81 EXIT 42; ON RAMP;
18:15:50  11/17/20 Traffic Incidnt 98 BRIDGE ST; MCDONALDS, WEST CARTHAGE(V)
18:54:44  11/17/20 V&T Stop ANTWERP PARKING AREA 11
19:08:29  11/17/20 V&T Stop I 81 EXIT 48; SB, PAMELIA(T)
19:09:17  11/17/20 Suspicious 35 N PARK ST, ADAMS(V)
18:32:22  11/17/20 Public Service 23688 PERRIGO RD, RUTLAND(T)
19:05:23  11/17/20 Traffic Incidnt 24479 STATE ROUTE 411; FLYING SPATULA PARKING
19:43:22  11/17/20 Traffic Incidnt 49 LEWIS COUNTY
19:55:13  11/17/20 V&T Stop STATE ROUTE 232 & COUNTY ROUTE 65, WATERTOWN(T)
19:36:29  11/17/20 Assist-Law 120 S MECHANIC ST; CARTHAGE POLICE DEPT
20:19:40  11/17/20 V&T Stop 232 & NAT GRID
20:23:46  11/17/20 V&T Stop HIGH & FACTORY
20:23:52  11/17/20 Police Callback 22140 COUNTY ROUTE 189, LORRAINE(T)
20:28:07  11/17/20 Traffic Viol/Hz 41932 STATE ROUTE 37; ROUTE 37 BUILDING SUPPLY
20:34:57  11/17/20 V&T Stop 11 & NORTHPOLE
20:38:26  11/17/20 Alarms 28060 LERAY ST, LERAY(T)
20:52:34  11/17/20 V&T Stop 781 & 11
21:05:10  11/17/20 V&T Stop 741 LERAY ST; RAYS SERVICE CENTER, WATERTOWN(C)
21:18:09  11/17/20 V&T Stop 781 & 11
21:20:29  11/17/20 V&T Stop COUNTY ROUTE 49 & MIDDLETON RD, RUTLAND(T)
21:21:28  11/17/20 V&T Stop I 81 EXIT 48; SB, PAMELIA(T)
21:26:27  11/17/20 V&T Stop WASHINGTON ST & MULLIN ST, WATERTOWN(C)
21:35:01  11/17/20 V&T Stop 11 & CITY LIMITS
21:37:49  11/17/20 Disturb/Nuisnce 1020 WASHINGTON ST, WATERTOWN(C)
21:51:05  11/17/20 V&T Stop I 81 EXIT 48; SB, PAMELIA(T)
21:57:17  11/17/20 V&T Stop STATE ROUTE 12 & BALD ROCK RD, CLAYTON(T)
21:57:48  11/17/20 Trespsng/Unwant 19325 US ROUTE 11; RELAX INN, WATERTOWN(T)
22:11:41  11/17/20 V&T Stop I 81 EXIT 48; SB, PAMELIA(T)
22:13:17  11/17/20 Drug 323 S WASHINGTON ST; CARTHAGE(V)
22:16:42  11/17/20 Public Service 31386 COUNTY ROUTE 46, LERAY(T)
23:29:23  11/17/20 Assist-Law 830 WASHINGTON ST; SAMARITAN MEDICAL CENTER
06:10:28  11/18/20 Vehicle Check PUTMAN HILL RD
06:25:07  11/18/20 V&T Stop I 81 EXIT 42 ; NB OFF RAMP, ADAMS(T)

 


State Park Police Activity

No activity.


DEC Activity

07:01:29  11/17/20 Traffic Incidnt STATE ROUTE 3 & BOLTON RD, ELLISBURG(T)


Adams Village Police Activity

07:31:33  11/17/20 V&T Stop E CHURCH ST & ROBERTS ST, ADAMS(V)


Alexandria Bay Village Police Activity

10:38:34  11/17/20 Fraud / Decept 2 BRIARWOOD DR, ALEX BAY(V)


Antwerp Village Police Activity

No activity.


Black River and Evans Mills Village Police Activity

07:05:37  11/17/20 V&T Stop LERAY ST & HENRY ST, EVANS MILLS(V)
08:23:41  11/17/20 Special Detail 28411 STATE ROUTE 126; RUTLAND TOWN COURT
13:00:21  11/17/20 Property Check 160 LERAY ST; BLACK RIVER ELEMENTARY
15:17:37  11/17/20 Property Check 8442 S MAIN ST; EVANS MILLS PRIMARY SCHOOL


Carthage Village Police Activity

09:16:50  11/17/20 Damge/Vand/Msch120 S MECHANIC ST; CARTHAGE POLICE DEPT
18:32:22  11/17/20 Public Service 23688 PERRIGO RD, RUTLAND(T)
19:36:29  11/17/20 Assist-Law 120 S MECHANIC ST; CARTHAGE POLICE DEPT
22:13:17  11/17/20 Drug 323 S WASHINGTON ST; APT C15, CARTHAGE(V)


West Carthage Village Police Activity

22:13:17  11/17/20 Drug 323 S WASHINGTON ST; APT C15, CARTHAGE(V)


Clayton Village Police Activity

13:39:22  11/17/20 Public Service 225 FRONTENAC BLVD, CLAYTON(V)
17:38:05  11/17/20 Attempt-Locate 912 STRAWBERRY LN;APT 68, CLAYTON(V)
17:59:36  11/17/20 Asst Othr Agncy 770 OLD STATE RD, CLAYTON(V)


Cape Vincent Village Police Activity

No activity.


Dexter Village Police Activity

No activity.


Glen Park Village Police Activity

10:16:58  11/17/20 Alarms 23746 STATE ROUTE 342; CELESTE JAMICAN CUISINE


Philadelphia Village Police Activity

08:23:02  11/17/20 V&T Stop 5 US ROUTE 11; PHILLY FUELS, PHILADELPHIA(V)
10:39:08  11/17/20 V&T Stop 32925 US ROUTE 11; INDIAN RVR HIGH SCH
10:56:21  11/17/20 V&T Stop MAIN ST & GARDEN RD, PHILADELPHIA(V)
11:04:13  11/17/20 V&T Stop MAIN ST & GARDEN RD, PHILADELPHIA(V)
12:18:06  11/17/20 V&T Stop MAIN ST & GARDEN RD, PHILADELPHIA(V)
14:39:21  11/17/20 Vehicle Check CR 29
15:26:28  11/17/20 Background Inv 56 MAIN ST; PHILADELPHIA POLICE


Sackets Harbor Village Police Activity

13:18:25  11/17/20 K9 Search 213 S BROAD ST; SACKETS HARBOR CENTRAL
13:20:21  11/17/20 K9 Search 213 S BROAD ST; SACKETS HARBOR CENTRAL
13:21:54  11/17/20 Property Check 213 S BROAD ST; SACKETS HARBOR CENTRAL
14:33:24  11/17/20 Special Detail 411 W WASHINGTON ST, SACKETS HRBR(V)


Theresa Village Police Activity

No activity.


© 2020 Newzjunky, Inc. 
The information you receive online from Newzjunky, Inc., is protected by the copyright laws of the United States.